There are several carpet fibers on the market that will essentially oxidize any organic liquid that comes in contact with the carpet. Additionally, and perhaps more importantly, there is padding that is designed with pets in mind that prevents liquid from reaching the decking.
Sheet vinyl has come a long way since the original patterns and colors. With the new imaging available many of the sheet vinyl patterns look very similar to ceramic tile or hardwood flooring.
Most laminate flooring is considerably more scratch resistant than hardwood flooring, but it still scratches and wears when exposed to pet nails.