Sheet vinyl has come a long way since the original patterns and colors. With the new imaging available many of the sheet vinyl patterns look very similar to ceramic tile or hardwood flooring.
Yes, engineered hardwood can be installed directly over concrete if it is above grade. There is even a system available to install solid hardwood directly over concrete floors.
Yes, vinyl is very appropriate for basement use, but like all other flooring types, check to make sure you do not have a moisture problem before installing it.